Online research material, extra readings & resources

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Atteridgeville: The Warm-Up by Kwanele Sisobo

‘Atteridgeville’ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (n.d) <>

‘Xenophobia – A Special Report’ Mail & Guardian Online <>

Misago, JP, L B. Landau and T Monson, 2009 “Towards Tolerance, Law, and Dignity: Addressing Violence against Foreign Nationals in South Africa”. Research conducted for IOM by the Forced Migration Studies Programme at the University of the Witwatersrand, funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID), Johannesburg.  <>

Nyar, A 2010 ‘ ‘What happened?’: A Narrative of the May 2008 Xenophobic violence.’  Synthesis Report:  South African Civil Society and Xenophobia. Research for Atlantic Philanthropies,  Johannesburg <>

Harris, B, 2001 “A Foreign Experience: Violence, Crime and Xenophobia during South Africa’s transition.” Violence and Transition Series, Vol. 5, August. 2001 <>

Harris, B. 2002 “Xenophobia: A new pathology for a new South Africa?” Psychopathology and Social Prejudice. Hook, D. & Eagle, G. (eds) University of Cape Town Press, Cape Town <>

CSVR,  2008, Understanding current xenophobic attacks and how South Africa can move forward, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation Presentation made at the Parliamentary Seminar on Migration and Xenophobia. <>

Valji, N. 2003 Creating the Nation: The Rise of Violent Xenophobia in the New South Africa. Unpublished Masters Thesis. Center for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation Research Report, 2003 <>

Neocosmos, M 2010  From ‘foreign natives’ to ‘native foreigners’: explaining xenophobia in post-apartheid South Africa : citizenship and nationalism, identity and politics. African Books Collective, Johannesburg <>

Misago, J P with Landau, L B and Monson, T 2008 Tensions, Territory and Terror:  Understanding Violence against Foreigners in South Africa. University of the Witwatersrand Forced Migration Studies Programme December 2008 <>

Misago, J P, Monson, T,  Polzer, T & Landau, L B. 2009 May 2008 Violence Against Foreign Nationals  In South Africa: Understanding Causes And Evaluating Responses. Forced Migration Studies Programme (FMSP), University of the Witwatersrand and Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in South Africa (CoRMSA) <>

Bond, P. & Ngwane, T. 2010 ‘Xenophobia and Civil Society: Why did it Happen?’ Synthesis Report:  South African Civil Society and Xenophobia. Research for Atlantic Philanthropies, Johannesburg <>

Mbeki, T. 3 July 2008 Address by President Thabo Mbeki at the National Tribute in remembrance of victims of the xenophobic violence, Tswane <>

Sharpeville: The Death of Jacob Dlamini by Jacob Dlamini

Sharpeville Six from Wikipedia <>

Zucchino, D 1988, “Sharpeville Still Suffers 4 Years Later”, July 17, Inquirer <>

“Murder trial of ‘Sharpeville Six’ opens” SA History Online, <>

Sassen, R. 2002, “Just Another Day In Africa. Still Standing: The Sharpeville Six”, Pop Matters, 5 June. <>

Macaulay, TB, “Horatius”, English Verse Online <>

Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe Resources on SA History Online

Solomon Kalushi Mahlangu Resources on SA History Online <>

South African Perspective and Historic Overview on the Anti-Pass March of 1956 <>

Boddy-Evans, A, “Women’s Anti-Pass Law Campaigns in South Africa What happened when the SA government tried to force women to carry passes”, SA History Online <>

Sobukwe, R M 1960, “As Verwoerd’s police thugs go mad”, Tribune Magazine, 8th April 1960 <> & <>

When History is Suspended (In memory of Ernesto Alfabeto Nhamhuave) by Ungulani Ba Ka Khosa

Ugah, A 2009 The Burning Man. DVD, Filmmakers Against Racism, Johannesburg <>

O’Toole, S 2009 ‘A Message to Ernesto Alfabeto Nhamuave’, Mahala

Underhill, G & Khumalo, S 2010 ‘No justice for burning man,’ Mail & Guardian < >

Dodd, A & Kurgan, T A, 2010 ‘Checking in to Hotel Yeoville: Undoing Xenophobia through Fresh Constitutions of Self in Trans-National Public Sphere.’ Paper presented at Interdisciplinary 2nd Global Conference: Breaking with Alienation and Misrecognition. 2010 <>

Alexandra: Alex killers are ‘proud’ of attacks on foreigners by Gcina Ntsaluba

Xenophobia – Mail & Guardian Online Special Report, Mail & Guardian Online <>

Everatt, E 2010 ‘That violence was just the beginning…’: Views on ‘foreigners’ and the May 2008 xenophobic violence as expressed in focus groups staged at the time’ Synthesis Report:  South African Civil Society and Xenophobia. Research for Atlantic Philanthropies, Johannesburg <>

HSRC, 2008, ‘Citizenship, Violence and Xenophobia in South Africa: Perceptions from South African Communities.’ Violence & Xenophobia in South Africa. Democracy and Governance Programme, Human Sciences Research Council. <>

Sinwell L & Neo Podi 2010 ‘Towards Addressing The Root Causes Of Social Tensions: Evaluating Civil Society And Local Government Responses To Xenophobic Violence In Alexandra.’ Synthesis Report:  South African Civil Society and Xenophobia. Research for Atlantic Philanthropies, Johannesburg <>

Duponchel, M ‘Who’s the alien? Xenophobia in post-apartheid South Africa’ CSAE Conference, Economic Development in Africa. 2010. <>

Hill, A & Lefko-Everett, K 2009 Xenophobia  Timeline. Research Unit on Liberatory Processes in Pre- and Post Colonial Southern Africa (RULPSA) <>

How the Attacks Were Planned by Maria Gabriela Carrilho Aragão

Steinberg, J. 2009 South Africa’s Xenophobic Eruption. ISS Paper no 169. November <>

Sinwell, L. 2009 Towards Addressing the Root Causes of Social Tensions: Evaluating Civil Society and Local Government Responses to Xenophobic Violence in Alexandra. Research for Atlantic Philanthropies. <>

Nairobi: Not Yet Uhuru by Kalundi Serumaga

Makau, C, Kibera Blog <>

Charton-Bigot, H & Rodriguez-Torres, D 2010 Nairobi Today: The Paradox of a Fragmented City. African Books Collective <>

Tshabangu, A 2011 ‘Kibera imoja’ Exhibition, Gallery Momo <>

wa Wamwere, K 2003 I Refuse to Die: My Journey for Freedom. Seven Stories Press <>

Rule, S 1987 ‘Tensions Deepening Between Uganda and Kenya’ New York Times. <>

Cechvala, S 2011 “A Glimpse Into Kenya’s Refugee Story,” Georgetown Blogs, Washington. <>

IRB, 1989 ‘How are Ugandans treated in Kenya?’ IRB – Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada Report, IRB <>

Kituo Cha Sheria, 2010. “International Rescue Committee and Kituo Cha Sheria Raise Concern About Indiscriminate Arrests and Harassment in Kenya’s Crackdown on Refugees.” Kituo Cha Sheria Press Release, Dec. 10, 2010. <>

Abuja: Where in the World will Ali Go? By Akin Akintayo

Ahmadu Ali on Nigerian Wiki <>

Ogunmade, O 2009 ‘Where is Ahmadu Ali?’ This Day, Nigeria. <>

‘Ambassadorial postings: South Africa rejects Ahmadu Ali!’ Nigeria Square. April 6, 2008 <>

Oluwole J. 2008 ‘Rationalising Ahmadu Ali’s rejection of ambassadorial appointment.’  Emerging Reasons about Senator Ali’s refusal/rejection of South Africa Discussion, Yahoo Groups <>

Akintayo, A 2008 ‘Ali Must Go – We deserve a whole lot better.’  Akin Blog. 13 May <>

Dead Cow Spreads Fear and Rumour in Lagos Suburb by Jide Adebayo Begun

University of Chicago Press, Chicago <>

Akinade, A  2010 Creativity and Change in Nigerian Christianity. African Books Collective <>

Marshall, R 2009 Political spiritualities: the Pentecostal revolution in Nigeria. University of Chicago Press, Chicago <>

Agbara, F I 2011 The Possibility of Convenience in Nigeria: Towards Intercultural Hermeneutics and Religion in Dialogue. LIT Verlag Münster <>

The Scandal by Suren Pillay Press Resource <>

Hadland, A 2008 ‘Shooting the messenger: Mediating the public and the role of the media in South Africa’s xenophobic violence.’ Democracy & Governance Research Programme, Human Sciences. Codesria <>

Gomo, T 2010  Analysis of media reporting and xenophobia violence among youth in South Africa. MA Thesis, Malmö högskola/Centrum för teknikstudier. <>

HRSC. 2008 ‘Citizenship, Violence and Xenophobia in South Africa: Perceptions from South African Communities.’ Democracy and Governance Programme Human Sciences Research Council, Human Sciences Research Council, Cape Town <>

Pillay, S  2008 “Xenophobia, Violence And Citizenship, Setting the scene: the HSRC Report.” In Hadland, A. (ed). Violence and xenophobia in South Africa: developing consensus, moving to action. A partnership between the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) and the High Commission of the United Kingdom. <>

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European Union Fortifies Its Mission On North African Frontline by Helmut Dietrich

de Haas, H. 2006, “Trans-Saharan Migration to North Africa and the EU: Historical Roots and Current Trends”, Migration Information Source, November <>

Valluy, J 2007, Contribution à une sociologie politique du HCR : le cas des politiques européennes et du HCR au Maroc, TERRA-Editions, Collection “Etudes” <>

Pullen, R 2005, “Migration management”, Incommunicado reader, Geert Lovink (ed), Institute of Network Cultures <>

World Refugee Survey: 2008, Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (USCRI) <>

Afeef, KF 2006, “The Politics of Extraterritorial Processing:  Offshore Asylum Policies in Europe and the Pacific,” Working Paper Series, University of Oxford < >

Goldschmidt, E 2006, “Storming the Fences – Morocco and Europe’s Anti-Migration Policy,” MER239, Middle East Research and Information Project (MERIP) <> <>

Migreurop <>Ticktin, Miriam. “The Offshore Camps of the European Union: At the Border of Humanity” International Affairs at the New School, Working Paper 2009-02, Summer 2009

EU’s North African Frontline by Philippe Rekacewicz

Rekacewicz, P, ‘Maps’, Le Monde diplomatique.<>

Rekacewicz, P, Le Monde diplomatique. <>

Rekacewicz, P 2009, This is tomorrow: Urban Utopia – Dystopia – Heterotopia, MIT TV, Fall Lecture Series. <>

Walls Make Us Strangers, Not Stronger by Alexandra Novosseloff and Frank Neisse

Novosseloff, A & Neisse, F 2008, Walls Between People Exhibition Press Kit, International Museum  of the Red Cross and Red Crescent. <>

Words Without Borders, 2009, The wall in my head: words and images from the fall of the Iron Curtain, Open Letter Books. <>

Secret Cities by Göran Dahlberg

Agamben, G 2005, State of exception, University of Chicago Press. <>

Global Persepctive: Islands of Security 2009, BBC World Service, 7 September. <>

Three Men, a Fence & a Dead Body by Sean O’Toole

Cimadomo, G & Ponce, P M 2006, ‘Ceuta and Melilla Fences:  A Defensive System?’, Sarai Reader 2006: Turbulence, Narula, M, Sengupta, S, Sundaram, R, Bagchi, J, Sharan, A & Lovink, G (eds), Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, Delhi, p. 336. <>

Rose, T 2005, San Pedro V: The Hope I Hope and Waiting for God, Live performance in Israel, YouTube, uploaded April 23, 2011. <>

O’toole, S & and Botes, P 2011, ‘Porous border is smugglers’ paradise’, Mail & Guardian, April 04. <>

Mail & Guardian 2007, ‘No fence too high to flee Mugabe’s Rule’, April 20. <>

Mail & Guardian 2007, ‘Zimbabweans defy death to flee into South Africa’, August 05. <>

Mawadza, A & Crush, J 2010, ‘Metaphors of Migration: Zimbabwean Migrants in the South African Media’,  Zimbabwe’s Exodus Crisis, Migration, Survival, Crush, J & Tevera, D (eds), Southern African Migration Programme/IDRC. <>

Krell, A 2002, The Devil’s Rope: A cultural history of barbed wire, Reaktion Books. <>

Remapping Nairobi: Buru Buru by Billy Kahora

Kahora, B 2010, Pilgrimages. <>

Hoover, E 2011, ‘In a Dictatorship Nothing is Secret:  Interview with Billy Kahora’ Sampsonia Way.<>

Kahora, B 2010, ‘The Gorilla’s Apprentice’ Granta New Voices, 16 February. <>

Wainaina, B 2007, ‘Generation Kenya’ Vanity Fair, July. <>

Wainaina, B 2008, ‘No Country for Old Hatreds’ New York Times, January 6. <>

Kenya Institute of Administration <>

Remapping Nairobi: Langata by Tom Odula

Kahora, B 2010, Pilgrimages. <>

Hoover, E 2011, ‘In a Dictatorship Nothing is Secret:  Interview with Billy Kahora’ Sampsonia Way.<>

Kahora, B 2010, ‘The Gorilla’s Apprentice’ Granta New Voices, 16 February. <>

Wainaina, B 2007, ‘Generation Kenya’ Vanity Fair, July. <>

Wainaina, B 2008, ‘No Country for Old Hatreds’ New York Times, January 6. <>

Kenya Institute of Administration <>

Remapping Nairobi: Wangige by Charles Matathiar

Stanfield, J 2005, “Kenya’s Forgotten Independent School Movement”, James Institute of Economic Affairs, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford <>

DJ Mantix, Kenyan Gospel Video Mixx Pt 1, Youtube <>

“Mantix Interview,” Baze Online <>

Wainaina, B 2008, ‘No Country for Old Hatreds’ New York Times, January 6. <>

Kenya Institute of Administration <>

Letters to Hillbrow by The Keleketla! Library

Keleketla! Library <>

Molelekwa, M T 2000, Darkness Pass, M.E.L.T., CD MZA 009-2, 2004. <>

The Boys Are Doin’ It by Olufemi Terry

P-Square Website <>

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The Rise of Somali Capital by Parsalelo Kantai

wa Thiong’o, N 2008, ‘Ngugi laments Kenya violence,’ 10 January, BBC News <>

wa Thiong’o, N 1991, ‘Uneven Development is the Root of Many Crimes’ United Nations Address, United Nations <>

Harper, M 2011, Somalis in Kenya: “They call us ATM machines”, Royal Africansociety <>

Oyugi, W O 2000, Politicised Ethnic Conflict in Kenya A Periodic Phenomenon, Addis Ababa <>

Horst, C. Xawilaad: The Importance Of Overseas Connections In The Livelihoods Of Somali Refugees In The Dadaab Refugee Camps Of Kenya, Amsterdam Research Institute for Global Issues and Development Studies, University of Amsterdam <>

Vioja Mahakamani on Youtube <>

ECOTERRA International 2010, “The Scramble for Somalia” <>

Whittaker , H 2008, ‘Pursuing Pastoralists: the Stigma of Shifta during the ‘Shifta War’ in Kenya, 1963-68’, Eras Journal, Edition Ten <>

Nuruddin, F 2010, ‘Of Tamarind & Cosmopolitanism,’ in Edjabe, N & Pieterse, E (eds), African Cities Reader, African Centre for Cities & Chimurenga Magazine <>

Goldsmith, P 2010, ‘Forget Piracy, Somalia’s Whole ‘Global’ Economy is Booming – to Kenya’s Benefit’, All Africa, 10 May. <>

Conflict Prevention, Mitigation, and Response Program for East and Southern Africa (CPMR/ESA) 2005, Kenya-Somalia Border Conflict Analysis, Managing African Conflict IQC <>

The story of a South African Firm by Jean and John L. Comaroff

Royal Bafokeng Holdings <>

Royal Bafokeng Nation <>

Cook, S. E. 2008, “The Business of Being Bafokeng: the Corporatization of a Tribal Authority in South Africa”, Corporate Lives: New Perspectives on the Social Life of the Corporate Form, Wenner-Gren Foundation and the School of Advanced Research, August 21-27 <>

“Chairman’s Message: To Our Stakeholders,” 2006, Royal Bafokeng Holdings Annual Review, Royal Bafokeng Holdings, Johannesburg. <>

Royal Bafokeng Holdings 2006, Bafokeng Holdings Annual Review, Royal Bafokeng Holdings, Johannesburg <>

Royal Bafokeng Holdings 2007, Vision 2010, Royal Bafokeng Nation Masterplan, Royal Bafokeng Holdings, Johannesburg <>

“Meet The New ‘Ceo’ Of Bafokeng Inc,” 2000 Mining Weekly, 17th November <>

Anderson, B 1983, Imagined Communities: Reflections On The Origin And Spread Of Nationalism, Verso, London <>

Bayart, JF 2005, The Illusion Of Cultural Identity, University Of Chicago Press 2005 <>

Berman, B, Dickson, E & Kymlicka, W 2004, Introduction To Ethnicity And Democracy In Africa, Oxford: James Currey; Athens: Ohio University Press <>

Bleifuss, J 1998, “Know Thine Enemy: A Brief History of Corporations,” In These Times, February <>

Brown, M.F 2003, Who Owns Native Culture? Cambridge, Ma: Harvard University Press <>

Comaroff, J 2002 “Second Comings: Neo- Protestant Ethics And Millennial Capitalism in South Africa, and Elsewhere” in Gifford, P, Archard, D, Hart, T.A & Rapport, N (Eds), 2000 Years and Beyond: Faith, Identity and The Common Era.. London: Routledge <>

Comaroff, J.L. & Comaroff, J 2009, Ethnicity, Inc. University of Chicago Press <>

Connor, W 1994, Ethnonationalism: The Quest For Understanding. Princeton, Nj: Princeton University Press <>

Glazer, N & Moynihan, DP 1975, Ethnicity: Theory And Experience. Cambridge, Ma: Harvard University Press <>

Hall, S 1996, “New Ethnicities” Morley D & Chen, K (eds) Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues In Cultural Studies, New York: Routledge. <>

Oomen, B 2005, Chiefs In South Africa: Law, Power And Culture In The Post- Apartheid Era. New York: Palgrave. <>

South Africa, Republic Of 2004, “Broad- Based Black Economic Empowerment Act, No.53,” Government Gazette (9 January 2004) 463, No.25899:1– 6 <>

Strange, S 1986, Casino Capitalism. Oxford: Blackwell. <>

Migration Business Is Good Business by  Jean-Christophe Servant

MoneyGram Money Transfer Website <>

Western Union Money Transfer Website <>

Mohapatra, S & Ratha, D 2011, Remittance Markets in Africa, World Bank Publications <>

Mohapatra, S & Ratha, D 2005, Remittances: development impact and future prospects. World Bank Publications <>

Irving, J, Mohapatra, S & Ratha, D 2010, Migrant remittance flows: findings from a global survey of central banks, World Bank Publications <>

Crush, J & Dodson, B 2010, Migration, Remittances and Development in Lesotho, African Books Collective <>

Fajnzylber, P.J. & López, H 2008, World Bank. Remittances and development: lessons from Latin America. World Bank Publications <>

Uduku, O & Zack-Williams, A 2004, Africa beyond the post-colonial: political and socio-cultural identities. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd <>

Kaye, J 2010, Moving Millions: How Coyote Capitalism Fuels Global Immigration. John Wiley and Sons <>

Simone, AM  2002, “Spectral Selves: Practices in the Making of African Cities”, Wits Institute for Social and Economic Research (WISER) <>

International Monetary Fund 2005, Monetary and Financial Systems Dept. Regulatory frameworks for hawala and other remittance systems, International Monetary Fund. <>

Winter, J 2004, “Somalia’s diaspora offers financial lifeline” BBC News, Mogadishu 24 November <>

“Business In Somalia: Why ‘Hawala’ Firms Are Crucial To Rebuilding The Economy” 2010, Beyond The First World News, October 05. <>

Mpesa “Send Money Home” TV Commercial, YouTube Video, Uploaded Jan 26, 2009 <>

M-PESA documentary, YouTube video uploaded Jan 26, 2009 <>

Safricom M-PESA Resource Centre <>

Morawczynski, O  2009, “What you don’t know about M-PESA.” CGAP Blog, July 14. <>

Omwansa, T 2009, “M-PESA: Progress and Prospects innovations”, Mobile World Congress <>

Poverty Forces Zimbabweans To Remit By Risk And Resourcefulness by  Ishmael Tongai

Leslie, R 2008, Migration from Zimbabwe: Numbers, needs, and policy options, Centre for Development and Enterprise, Johannesburg. <>

SAMP Migration Policy Briefs, SAMP Resources: Publications. <>

Tevera, D & Chikanda, A 2009, Migrant Remittances and Household Survival in Zimbabwe, African Books Collective <>

Crush, J & Tevera, D 2010, Zimbabwe‘s Exodus: Crisis, Migration, Survival. African Books Collective <>

Crush, J & Frayne, B 2010, Surviving on the move: migration, poverty and development in Southern Africa, Southern African Migration Project, African Books Collective <>

Maphosa, F 2005, “The Impact of Remittances from Zimbabweans Working in South Africa on Rural Livelihoods in the Southern districts of Zimbabwe”, Forced Migration Working Paper Series #14, Forced Migration Studies Programme, University of the Witwatersrand <>

Hauling Humans – a tricky business for trans-border truckers by Sean Christie

Gastrow, P (Ed) 2003, “Penetrating State and Business”, Organised Crime in Southern Africa Volume 1. Nasmbia ISS Monograph 68 <>

Duddy, JM 2010, “More weaner ‘smuggling’” The Nambian. 7 October <>

Sasman, C 2010, “No Namibian Meat Smuggled’” All Africa, 29 June <>

“Allegations of Smuggling Anger Meat Board,”  2010, All Africa, 29 June <>

“Corridors driving infrastructure development,” 2006, SADC Today Volume 9 No.1, April <>

Raballand, G, Kunaka C & Giering, B. 2008, The Impact Of Regional Liberation And Harmonization In Road Transportation Services, World Bank Publications <>

Ratha, D & Shaw, W. 2007, South-south migration and remittances, World Bank Publications <>

Teravaninthorn, S & Raballand, G 2009, “Transport prices and costs in Africa: a review of the main international corridors,” Directions in Development, Volume 772. World Bank Publications <>

Beira Corridor Website <>

Cossou, E 2010 “Mozambique gambles on trade super highway”, BBC News, 23 July <>

Potts, D 2010, Circular Migration in Zimbabwe and Contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa. Boydell & Brewer <>

McGregor, J & Primorac, R, Zimbabwe‘s new diaspora: displacement and the cultural politics of survival. Berghahn Books <>

Moving ‘White Man’s Deads’ Is No Second-Hand Business by Olumide Abimbola

Abimbola, O, Loomnie Blog  <>

Abimbola, O,  Regular Column, Business Day Newspaper, Nigeria, June 2009 – Jan 2010 <>

Abimbola, O 2009, “Being similar:  other-identification during fieldwork”, Anthropology Matters Journal. Vol. 11 (1)  <>

Abimbola, O 2011, “Does second-hand clothing kill local textile industries?” Betterplace Lab, 2 February.  <>

Abimbola, O 2011, “What happens when your used clothes arrive in West Africa?” Betterplace Lab, 20 January 2011.  <>

Falola, T & Usman. AA 2009, Movements, borders, and identities in Africa, University Rochester Press <>

Baden, S 2005, “The impact of the second-hand clothing trade on developing countries,” Oxfam <>

Musiani, F. 2008, “Secondhand Clothes: Community-Builders? The Journey of Western Used Clothes in Sub-Saharan Africa,” in J. Moe and L. Jokivirta (eds.) Interwoven Stories: the Fabric of Community, San José, CR: University for Peace & Earth Charter International. <>

Maynard, M 2004, Dress and globalisation, Manchester University Press <>

Jean Marie Allman, JM 2004, Fashioning Africa: power and the politics of dress, Indiana University Press <>

Brunetti, R 2005, Mitumba: The Second-Hand Road, film, Arte, BB-Film, Filmtank Hamburg. <>

Juba: I Will Make My Life Here by Billy Kahora

“Doing Business in Juba” 2011, IFC Sudan Investment Climate Program, World Bank and the International Finance Corporation 2011 <>

Martin E & Mosel, I 2011, “City limits: urbanisation and vulnerability in Sudan. A Juba case study”, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute. <>

Ahmed, AG 2011, “Internal Population Displacement in Sudan.” Migration, Gender and Diversity in Eastern Africa, Conference at Ahfad University for Women, Omdurman, Sudan. May <>

El Nagar, S 2011, “Decisions of South Sudan People in Khartoum to Return or Stay.” Migration, Gender and Diversity in Eastern Africa, Conference at Ahfad University for Women, Omdurman, Sudan, May <>

Bunting, M. 2011 “What does the future hold for southern Sudan?” Guardian Focus Podcast, 30 June <>

Waldyes, T 2010 “To Be Or Be Gone:  Ethiopian Expats Stand Divided on Sudan Referendum”. Addis Fortune Volume 11, Number 550, Nov 14 <>

Sebba, KR 2007, “Evolving patterns of migration to Southern Sudan”, Paper presented at the African Migrations Workshop: Understanding migration dynamics in the continent, Centre for Migration Studies University of Ghana, October <>

Garang, J 1987, John Garang speaks. Routledge <>

Letter from Accra: Sankõfa in Rhode Island by Manu Herbstein

“African Tradition, Proverbs, and Sankofa”, The Spirituals Project at the University of Denver <>

“Brown Creates Commission to Commemorate History of R.I. Slavery,” 2007, Brown University. <>

Slavery and the Slave Trade in Rhode Island, John Carter Brown Library, Brown University. <>

“Slavery and Justice Report of the Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice, “ 2007, Brown University <>

Rappleye, C. 2006, Sons of Providence: The Brown Brothers, the Slave Trade, and the American Revolution, Simon and Schuster <>

Bailey, C. A. 2005, African voices of the Atlantic slave trade: beyond the silence and the shame, Beacon Press <>

De Jong, F. & Rowlands, M. J. 2007, Reclaiming heritage: alternative imaginaries of memory in West Africa. Left Coast Press <>

Austin, G. 2005, Labour, land, and capital in Ghana: from slavery to free labour in Asante, 1807-1956, Boydell & Brewer. <>

Conte De Fer by Abdourahman A. Waberi

Pankhurst, R. “The Franco-Ethiopian Railway and Its History,” <>

The Franco-Ethiopian and Djibouto-Ethiopian Railway Website <>

Empowering Africa by Philippe Rekacewicz

Rekacewicz, P. 2011, “Useful Africa Map,” Le Monde diplomatique, February <>

Rekacewicz, P. 2011, “Unequal development, selective investments”, Le Monde diplomatique, February <>

Coloma, T. 2011, “The needles are stuck on zero: Dams that could power Africa” Le Monde diplomatique, February <>

Mukheibir, P.  2007, “Possible climate change impacts on large hydroelectricity schemes in Southern Africa.” Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, Vol 18 No 1, February, Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town <>

Madamombe, I.  2005, “Challenges in West Africa’s quest for electricity”, Africa Renewal, Vol.18 #4 (January 2005), pp 6 <>

Misser, F. 2007, “Hydroelectricity: An enormous, yet underused resource”, Courier Issue Nr. III (N.S.) – November/December <>

“Hydropower Resource Assessment Of Africa,” 2008, Ministerial Conference On Water For Agriculture And Energy In Africa: The Challenges Of Climate Change, Sirte, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, 15-17 December <>

United Nations Environment Programme 2010, “Africa Water Atlas”, UNEP/Earthprint <>

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Somewhere Between a Scream and a Lullaby by Stacy Hardy

Studios Kabako Website <>

Tansi, S L 2011, Life and a Half: A Novel (Alison Dundy trans , Dominic Thomas intro.). Indiana University Press, Indiana <>

Boeck, F D & Plissart M F 2004, Kinshasa: récits de la ville invisible. Ludion<>

Malaquais, D 2011, “Anti-Teleology” in African Cities Reader II: Mobilities & Fixtures, African Centre for Cities & Chimurenga Magazine <>

Linyekula, F , “Corks and Memories” Studios Kabako<>

Bicarbonate – Arsenal de Belles Melodies 2009, Blu Ray HD Remix, YouTube <>/?p=2318>

Why come Kamerun be bass central by Lionel Manga

Jeune Afrique Magazine <>

Bass solo Guy Nsangue sur Mouna Bowa 2009, Guy Nsangue, YouTube Uploaded  Jan 20, 2009 <>

Nsangué-Akwa, G Bona, R & Mbappé, E Afro Montreal Podcast 2009 Podcast, Afro Montreal (n.d) <,%20Richard%20Bona,%20Etienne%20Mbapp%E9>

Afro Montreal Podcast, Guy Nsangué Discography at Discogs <é?anv=Guy+Nsangue>

‘Andre Manga On Bass’ 2007, YouTube Uploaded Jul 7, <>

Andre Manga Website, <>

Armand Sabbal Lecco Myspace,  <>

‘Armand Sabal-Lecco’ 2006, The Rest of the World, YouTube Uploaded  Jan 14,<>

Vicky Edimo <>

Vicky Edimo Discography at Discogs, <>

‘Vicky Edimo’ 2010, You’re Too Young, YouTube, Uploaded Oct 14 <>

Jean Dikoto Mandengue, <>

Jean-Karl Dikoto Mandengue Discography at Discogs, <>

‘Jean Dikoto Mandengue’ 2010, Kossa Ba, YouTube, uploaded Dec 17,<>

Osibisa, <>

Osibisa Discography at Discogs, <>

‘Osibisa’ 2007, Gong Gong Song, YouTube, Uploaded Feb 24<>

Makossa Original Blog, 2010, Black Styl – Loba a ma sawa 1980, 8 August,<>

Etienne MBAPPE : The Official Website, <>

‘Nkotti Francois’ 2010, Black Styl Mwassa, YouTube, Uploaded Aug 21,<>

Brown, C 2010, An Interview with Etienne Mbappé, No Trebel, June 8th,<>

Manu Dibango, <>

Manu Dibango Discography at Discogs, <>

Jean Dikoto Mandengue, <>

Manfred Long Discography at Discogs, <>

“Stanley Clarke,Vulcan Princess/ Yesterday Princess.” YouTube, Uploaded Nov 2009 <>

Stanley Clarke Website <>

Stanley Clarke Discography at Discogs <>

In The Listening Room with Neo Muyanga

Gigi, “Tew Ante Sew” (off Gigi (2001), Palm Pictures)<–Tew-Ante-Sew–Amharic-Music>

Thomas Mapfumo’s Hallelujah Chicken Run Band, 2006 “Mudzimu Ndiringe” Take One, Alula Records<>

Huun-Huur-Tu, “Deke Jo” (off Where Young Grass Grows (1999), Shanachie)<> & <>

Aaron Copland, “Zion’s Walls” (Old American Songs, Set 2) , You tube <>

“Congo Square” 2006 Congo Square: Love. Libation. Liberation – Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra with Wynton Marsalis and Yacub Addy, MP3 <>

Keith Tippett Orchestra, 2007 ‘Fourth Thread’ (off Keith Tippett Tapestry Orchestra Live At Le Mans, Edition Records<>

Introducing The Hardline According To The Artist Formerly Known As Terence Trent D’arby by Miles Marshall Lewis

Maitreya, S 2004  Sananda Maitreya Blog, <>

Pickett, W 2008 mustang sally {Online Video}<>

‘Milli Vanilli Loses Grammy in ‘devil’s Pact;’ ‘true’ Rapper Tells His Side of the Story,’ Jet Magazine Vol. 79, No. 9. 10 Dec 1990 <>

‘Pilatus, R 1998 ‘Member of Defunct Pop Group Milli Vanilli, Dies in Germany,’ Jet Magazine,  Vol. 93, No. 22  27 Apr 1998 <>

Darren Darby aka Muddfut Myspace {Online} <>

Independent and unofficial Prince fan community site <>

A legacy of note by  Max Annas

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Football Cannot Go Faster Than Politics’ by Sophia Azeb

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New bush, old ghosts by Louis Chude-Sokei

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The Road To Wellville by Achal Prabhala

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The G. Spot Protagonists by Goddy Leye

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Namy, R, 2010 ‘Reading Bolaño In Tehran’  Quarterly Conversation, viewed 11 November 2009 <>

Moya, H C. 2009 ‘Bolaño Inc.’, viewed 11 November 2009

The Art of War by Mashingaidze Gomo

Wa Thiong’o, N 1994 Decolonising the mind: the politics of language in African literature. East African Publishers, Nairobi <>

Woman Beware Woman by Lola Shoneyin

Shoneyin, L 20011 The Secret Lives of Baba Segi’s Wives. Cassava Republic Press, Abuja <

Shoneyin, L  2010 ‘Lola Shoneyin Discusses The Secret Lives of the Four Wives’, Youtube, Jun 14, 2010 <>

‘Between Pa Zuma and Baba Segi’  (n.d) African Writing. No. 9 <>

Why Must A Chinese Writer Write about Sex? Robert Berold reviews I Love Dollars by Zhu Wen

Lee, K  2004 ‘From Sea to Sky: An Interview with Zhu Wen’. Senses of Cinema Issue 33 <>

How To Write About Africa – Boniface Mongo-Mboussa reviews Le Devoir de violence by Yambo Ouologuem

Wise, C 1999  Yambo Ouologuem: postcolonial writer, Islamic militant. Lynne Rienner Publishers <>

Discoveries Of Timbuktu – Ciraj Rassool reviews The Meanings of Timbuktu – Shamil Jeppie, Souleymane Bachir Diagne (eds)

The Tombouctou Manuscripts Project <>

Institut des Hautes Etudes et de Recherches Islamiques – Ahmed Baba, Timbuktu (formerly CEDRAB, The National Ahmed Baba Center for Documentation and Research in Timbuktu or “Centre de Documentation et de Recherches Ahmed Baba”) <>

Mamma Haidara Library, Bamak <>

Savama-DCI (Sauveguarde et Valorisation des Manuscrits pour la Défence de la Culture Islamique) <>

Jeppie, S & Bachir, S Diagne (eds) 2008 The Meanings Of Timbuktu. HSRC Press and Codesria, Cape Town <>

50 Years Ago: Zeke in Nigeria by Manu Herbstein

ANC, 1955,  The freedom charter. African National Congress (South Africa) <>

Herbstein, D & Human Sciences Research Council, 2004, White lies: Canon Collins and the secret war against apartheid. James Currey Publishers <>

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